Confidential communications between a client and an attorney for the purpose of securing legal advice. For the privilege of confidentiality to exist, the communication must be to, from, or with an attorney.
All Data Types
Information related to credit, debit, or other payment cards. This data type is governed by the Payment Card Industry (PCI) Data Security Standards and overseen by the University of Michigan Treasurer's Office. Credit or debit card numbers cannot be stored in any electronic format without the expressed, written consent of the U-M Treasurer's Office. That office is responsible for the only PCI-compliant environment at the university.
If your unit wants to start accepting credit card payments, contact the University of Michigan Treasurer's Office to arrange for this. You cannot handle the transactions using departmental computers.
Restrictions listed here do not apply to your own personal credit card information. However, it is recommended that you follow the same precautions with regard to your own personal information as you would with university data.
Export Controlled Research includes information that is regulated for reasons of national security, foreign policy, anti-terrorism, or non-proliferation. The International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) and Export Administration Regulations (EAR) govern this data type. Current law requires that this data be stored in the U.S and that only authorized U.S. persons be allowed access to it.
The Federal Information Security Management Act (FISMA) requires federal agencies and those providing services on their behalf to develop, document, and implement security programs for information technology systems and store the data on U.S. soil. This means that, under some federal contracts or grants, information the university collects or information systems that the university uses to process or store research data need to comply with FISMA.
Whether data is regulated by FISMA is typically called out in a Request for Proposal (RFP) or in contract or grant language. It is important that researchers review grant and contract language closely to identify FISMA or other information security requirements.
IT Security Information consists of information that is generated as a result of automated or manual processes that are intended to safeguard the university’s IT resources. It includes settings, configurations, reports, log data, and other information that supports IT security operations.
According to university policy, data will typically be classified as sensitive if any of the following are true:
- Unauthorized disclosure may have serious adverse effects on the university’s reputation, resources, or services or on individuals
- It is protected under federal or state regulations.
- There are proprietary, ethical, or privacy considerations.
Personally Identifiable Information (PII) is a category of sensitive information that is associated with an individual person, such as an employee, student, or donor. PII should be accessed only on a strictly need-to-know basis and handled and stored with care.
PII is information that can be used to uniquely identify, contact, or locate a single person. Personal information that is “de-identified” (maintained in a way that does not allow association with a specific person) is not considered sensitive. Note that UMID numbers by themselves are not considered sensitive or personally identifiable information. While Social Security numbers are a type of PII, the legal requirements for protecting them are much more stringent than for other PII.
University policies, contractual obligations, and federal and state laws and regulations require appropriate protection of PII that is not publicly available. These regulations apply to PII stored or transmitted via any type of media: electronic, paper, microfiche, and even verbal communication.
PII does not include publicly available information that is lawfully made available to the general public from federal, state, or local government records.
Protected Health Information (PHI) is defined by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA). PHI is individually identifiable health information that relates to the
- Past, present, or future physical or mental health or condition of an individual.
- Provision of health care to the individual by a covered entity (for example, hospital or doctor).
- Past, present, or future payment for the provision of health care to the individual.
Researchers should be aware that health and medical information about research subjects may also be regulated by HIPAA. Researchers can contact the Michigan Medicine Compliance Office with questions.
Sensitive identifiable human subject research data is regulated by the Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects (also called the “Common Rule”). Among other requirements, the Common Rule mandates that researchers protect the privacy of subjects and maintain confidentiality of human subject data.
A human subject is defined by federal regulations as a "living individual about whom an investigator (whether professional or student) conducting research obtains (1) data through intervention or interaction with the individual, or (2) identifiable private information.”
“Identifiable” means the information contains one or more data elements that can be combined with other reasonably available information to identify an individual (for example, Social Security number, health care record).
Personally identifiable data is sensitive if disclosure of such data would pose increased social/reputational, legal, employability, or insurability risk to subjects.
Social Security numbers are unique, nine-digit numbers issued to U.S. citizens, permanent residents, and temporary (working) residents for taxation, Social Security benefits, and other purposes. Social Security numbers are a primary target for identity thieves. While Social Security numbers are a type of Personally Identifiable Information (PII), the legal requirements for protecting them are much more stringent than for other PII. U-M has not used Social Security numbers as identifiers for students and employees since 2004.